The paths to "Eureka" moments: Teaching Mathematics in Secondary Education

Posts tagged ‘Religion in Education’

Cultural Beauty in Education

Jewish School Visit

I recently had the opportunity to visit a private Jewish school and observe several math classes in progress. This was a fantastic experience and unlike any observation I have done in the past. Walking into the school was like entering a completely unique culture and community of learning.star of david

The school was for early-childhood through 8th grade and as such exhibited many characteristics of an elementary school with art and student work throughout halls and entryways. Signs and labels were written in beautiful handwriting or text in both Hebrew and English. The walls and floors were colorful and lively.

communityClassrooms could be described as what you might see in any elementary or middle school except for the added Hebrew phrase here and there. However, the culture and community in the classrooms were quite unique. Class size was considerably small which gave opportunity for a comfortable and familiar atmosphere. Some classes had as little as two students! In this case, the teacher was able to work directly with individual students, customize lessons, and present unique challenges.

Because of the fluid transition from elementary age classes to middle school, several elementary school characteristics were present in 6th and 7th grade classes. For example, one teacher had her students take their math textbooks and notebooks and circle up on the floor facing a floor whiteboard. In this less formal setting, the teacher proceeded to review vocabulary words and previously discussed material.

Another unique aspect of classes at this school is that class periods are much shorter (38 min) than the typical public school time block. This shortens the instructional time considerably, and yet the teachers are still expected to keep up with the state standards and timelines.  The reason for less time per period is the additional Jewish cultural classes taught during half of the day. Students at this school spend extensive time learning about and partaking in religious traditions, studying Jewish history, and learning Hebrew. In this way, students’ cultural backgrounds are deeply honored and provide the foundation upon which their education is based.

Because of the school’s strong religious and cultural bonds between curriculum and learning community, parent and familial support is very strong. Faculty and administrators of the school regularly inform, involve, and collaborate with family and community members in each student’s educational process. Social justice projects and multicultural field trips are peppered throughout the students’ academic career.

This school’s commitment to their faith and cultural roots allow faculty to create a beautiful harmony of family and education. Though the set of values may be different per school, I believe other schools may take a lesson from this and strive to create a similar culture of student value and community outreach.

TI: Informed by Standards Based Assessment (Philosophy of Assessment)

Assessment Philosophy

Assessment models, feedback, great teaching, and differentiation each help motivate students to learn.

Assessment models provide standards for both students and teachers to live up to. This provides structure and consistency on which students can depend for feedback on their progress.

Feedback is a tool by which teachers can convey student success and area of improvement. Using this tool correctly can challenge students and provide them with opportunities for learning.

In order to properly utilize the tool of “Feedback” one must implement great teaching techniques. If used inappropriately, a student’s self-esteem, motivation, and ability perception can be harmed.

It is for this reason that teachers must implement differentiation in the classroom. Not all students are the same. They differ in learning styles, personality types, and in ways of communicating. Thus, great teachers must strive to provide multiple methods of assessment so as to effectively chart their learning, and provide future challenges.

Film Review: The Common School 1770-1890

This post is a review of an educational film viewed in my Educational Psychology class at Seattle Pacific University. In this brief post, the following three questions will be answered:

1) What is the focus of the era?

2) What do we learn about schools then?

3) Who gets to learn?

What is the focus of the era?

To build an independent, patriotic nation.

  • In school students became something larger than themselves or their families, they became part of one nation. Students learned about the meaning of democracy itself.
  • At that time, only the larger towns in New England were required to build schools, outside of this area, education was neither free nor public. Most schooling was closely tied to the Protestant Bible. With the Bible as a core part of the curriculum, school was about saving the soul.
  • Aside from using the Bible, the most common school book was the New England Primer.
  • When Noah Webster claimed that the 1st step in forming a new nation was to remove England’s textbooks- national history had to be formed on the founding fathers.
  • General education will enable people to keep their own freedom. Survival of independence relied on the education of all Americans. With this in mind, Thomas Jefferson drafted a proposal of a three year education for all children in America. Additionally, he would send on the very brightest youth to universities.

What do we learn about schools then?

Schools widely differ depending on location and private funding.

  • 18th century schools were formed in a manner so as to keep the status quo; children would replace their parents in society.
  • Men were teachers, not women.
  • There is an average of 82 days of total school in a year.
  • Jefferson said at this time,  “People have more feeling for roads and canals than for education, they are leery of taxation for education.”
  • Horace Mann, the Secretary of Education, had little previous authority or background in education before attaining his position as secretary. He reviewed facilities and town-to-town education equality. He found that wealthy students could go to school for longer, and poor couldn’t go at all. He reported on the conditions of the school buildings. Rural district schools were out of shape and in disrepair.The materials were inadequate, readers were terrible.
  • At this time, children of all ages went to school, teachers acted as a ring master to keep multiple children working on all different subjects focused.
  • Schools had very strict rules and used punishment (often physical) as a form of discipline.
  • People began leaving public schools for private schools. Mann held a series of meetings for what he called common schools. These common schools would teach from a common curriculum. This system would “know no distinction between rich and poor.” Mann believed in equalizing school. Common,  meaning: all coming together.
  • Critics of Horace Mann were opposed to state control of schools as well as the taxes that came with it.
  • Furthermore, Mann recommended resources for classrooms:  a blackboard, standardized textbooks, chairs with backs on them, and in general, more teacher regulation. He got free, tax supported education, to be available to every class. Each citizen was to be equal to any other in politics and rights.

Who gets to learn?

A select few until …progress leads to more opportunity

  • Under Thomas Jefferson’s proposal (early 1800’s), girls were alloted three years of schooling, while no education was permitted for slaves. Male students were given the most opportunities and more was expected from their education.
  • By the mid 1800’s many of the students seeking education were immigrants. However, most schools were protestant (bad news for the Irish Catholics). John Hughes, the Catholic priest, called for movement of Irish children to  not go to schools that had books which would indoctrinate Irish students against their personal religion. He wanted a just proportion of the funds from the common fund to be given to the Irish to start their own schools. The city, New York, denied Hughes’ request.
  • In 1843 Bible riots broke out, leaving 13 people dead and the Catholic Church burned to the ground. Protestant textbooks spoke about the Catholics as a different race of people in offensive and derogatory language. However, after much opposition from the Protestant movement, most offensive statements toward Catholics were removed from textbooks.
  • During this time, 2/3 of the black population lived in the south, and were severely punished for any attempt of education. In 1840 African Americas were still restricted to segregated schools.
  • Inspired by Fredrick Douglas, supporters requested desegregation as a part of equal and common curriculum. Despite the requests, segregation continued even in the event of terrible school conditions of black schools.
  • In 1849 the case was heard at the Supreme Court. Denied again, the case was taken to the state legislator where it was passed.
  • 1865- The Civil War ended.  Now all were free to pursue an education.

———————————————————————————————

This film is part of a series of four called:

School- “The Story of American Public Education”

It was produced by PBS and narrated by Academy Award winner Meryl Streep. For more information see link: http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/